Coral reefs have evolved over millions of years where “symbioses” facilitated efficient cycling of nutrients within reef organisms in “oligotrophic” or low-nutrient conditions.  Nutrient pollution has resulted in algal over-growth, coral diseases, loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. Over 75% of the world’s coral reef are threatened or have been lost. The future of the world’s coral reefs is challenged by their resilience to human-induced climate change, as global temperatures, sea-level and ocean acidity rise.

Biotic phase-shifts in Florida Bay and Fore Reef communities of the Florida Keys

Chapter from Porters’ The Everglades, Florida Bay, and Coral Reefs of the Florida Keys: An Ecosystem Sourcebook
Brian E. Lapointe, William Martzie, Peter Barile

Download – Lapointe 2001