Human wastewater is a threat to public health and coastal aquatic ecosystems with contamination of surface waters and groundwaters by excessive organic matter, nutrients, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, microplastics and other chemicals. Nutrient over-enrichment results in HABs, habitat loss, hypoxic and anoxic zones. Fecal pathogens cause pollution and loss of shellfisheries, diseases in corals and marine mammals, and threats to human recreational activities.

Wading in waste

Michael A. Mallin, Scientific American

Download – Mallin 2006

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